RepositoryLambeth Palace Library
Alt Ref NoFP Temple
Extent56 volumes
TitleTemple, Frederick (1821-1902)
DescriptionThe papers of Frederick Temple, bishop of London, 1885-96, form part of the papers of the bishops of London, now known as the Fulham Papers, and comprise correspondence and papers relating to the administration of the diocese of London.

Most of the correspondence is concerned with parochial matters. The great rate of increase in population and the influx of people into towns especially London in the nineteenth century caused the Church of England problems with church accommodation. The Temple Papers illustrate the ways in which these challenges were met in the diocese of London. There is much correspondence on the building of mission churches and chapels of ease, the enlargement of existing churches and the creation of new parishes. This activity placed a considerable financial burden upon incumbents, and the resulting debts caused countless applications for grants to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, Queen Anne's Bounty and charitable bodies such as the Bishop of London's Fund. At the same time, the population of the city of London had fallen leaving many churches with very small congregations. There is much discussion, often contentious, on the union of city benefices and closure of churches. The money from the sale of some churches was used to fund the building of new churches elsewhere in the metropolis.

The controversy over ritualism became fierce during Temple's episcopate. He was reluctant to initiate investigations into the use of ritual, but many parish clergy were brought to his notice by individuals and organisations such as the Church Association and the English Church Union. He repeatedly stressed that he had no power to coerce the clergy to observe the rubrics and that the only effectual remedy was prosecution. In a letter of 1886 to the congregation of St Alban, Fulham (Vol. 7, f.97), he made clear that the great variety of ritual within the Church of England had many advantages, but that the only way to avoid the danger of schism, was to keep strictly within the law - "Whenever therefore appeal is made to me, I make it my business, it seems to me to be clearly my duty, to declare what the law is and call upon all to obey it". He only used his episcopal veto once to prevent a case coming to trial when, in 1885, the Church Association and others objected to the erection of the reredos in St. Paul's. In explanation, he stressed that the evils of litigation in such matters usually outweighed any possible benefit.

Clerical appointments clearly occupied much of the bishop's time, and form a high proportion of the papers. Elderly or incompetent incumbents caused particular difficulty as the law offered no means of enforcing their resignation. Temple was faced with several cases of clear incompetence, where his hands were effectively tied.

His keen interest in social questions is reflected in the papers by correspondence on subjects such as education and the running of societies designed to protect young men, newly arrived in London, from the evils surrounding them.
AppraisalPapers of Bishop Temple were appraised and some administrative correspondence and papers relating to minor clergy and lay readers were destroyed (chiefly concerning licensing).
ArrangementVolumes 1-39 consist of material on individual parishes arranged according to rural deanery, and volumes 40-56 form a subject series, including two volumes on the chapels royal (Vols. 42-3), two volumes on lay readers (Vols. 53-4), and one volume (Vol. 44) of abstracts of visitation returns for the diocese, 1891, 1895, the originals of which do not survive.
FindingAidsDescriptions based on finding aid by Victoria Peters, Assistant Archivist, 1993. The index combines a comprehensive index of places with a selective index of persons, institutions and subjects. All correspondents mentioned in the Dictionary of National Biography, Who Was Who and Boase's Modern English Biography were indexed. All bishops and higher clergy were indexed. Incumbents, however, only have separate entries if the letters reflect a topic of a more personal nature, for example desire for preferment or the beliefs or practices of the correspondent. Those clergy who do not merit separate entries can easily be traced by reference to their parishes. Parishes are listed fully in the descriptions of volumes.

The letters and papers were addressed either to the bishop or to his chaplains. This distinction has not been retained in the index since the chaplains were acting in the name of the bishop. The word correspondence has been used to indicate the inclusion of letters written by Temple himself. There are few such letters but Temple often wrote notes to his chaplains on the incoming letter indicating the reply he wanted. It is possible, therefore, by referring to these notes, to collect the views of the bishop.
CustodialHistoryPart of the papers of the bishops of London, now known as the Fulham Papers, which were originally at Fulham Palace.
AcquisitionFulham Papers deposited in Lambeth Palace Library by the Church Commissioners in 1960.
1. Index to the letters and papers of Frederick Temple, archbishop of Canterbury, 1896-1902, in Lambeth Palace Library, by Melanie Barber, 1975.
2. Frederick Temple's register, 1896-1902.
3. Lambeth Conference papers, 1887-1901.
4. Canterbury diocesan visitation returns, 1898, 1902.

Letters and papers of Frederick Temple will be found in the following catalogues:
Index to the letters and papers of Archibald Campbell Tait, archbishop of Canterbury, 1868-1882, in Lambeth Palace Library, 1989.
Index to the letters and papers of Edward White Benson, archbishop of Canterbury, 1883-1896, in Lambeth Palace Library, 1980.
Letters and papers of Randall Thomas Davidson, archbishop of Canterbury, 1903-28, in Lambeth Palace Library, 1993.
Letters and papers of Cosmo Gordon Lang, archbishop of Canterbury, 1928-42, in Lambeth Palace Library, 1986.
Letters and papers of William Temple, archbishop of Canterbury, 1942-4, in Lambeth Palace Library, 1981.
A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library, Mss. 1222-1860, by E.G.W. Bill, 1972.
A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library, Mss. 1907-2340, by E.G.W. Bill, 1976.
A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library, Mss. 2341-3119, by E.G.W. Bill, 1983.
A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library, Mss.3120-3469, by E.G.W. Bill, 1988.

Also in the later MSS sequence, notably MSS 4514-4534.

See National Register of Archives.

Further material relating to the life of Temple is found at Newcastle under Lyme School, among the papers of Dr Francis Elliott Kitchener, who was responsible for “Rugby Memoir, 1857 – 1869”, from volume 1 of “Memoirs of Archbishop Temple by Seven Friends”. Those papers comprise:
A collection of original letters from the papers of Francis E Kitchener concerning Frederick Temple.
A bound volume of typed copies of some of the letters written by Frederick Temple to his family whilst a student at Oxford.
PublnNoteP. B. Hinchliff, 'Frederick Temple, Archbishop of Canterbury: a life' (1998) [H5198.T35H5]

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Related name records
16Temple; Frederick (1821-1902); Archbishop of Canterbury1821-1902
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