RepositoryLambeth Palace Library
Alt Ref NoFP III
TitleVOLUME III: General Correspondence
1-2. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Robinson, May 18, 1720. Regrets departure of Governor Hart, by whom letter is sent, urges appointment of a commissary 'better qualifyd' than himself, and reports serious irregularities on the part of Mr. Howell.
3-4. Several Maryland clergy to Bishop Robinson, Annapolis, May 19, 1720, regret departure of Governor Hart.
5-6. Jacob Henderson to a group of clergy meeting in Annapolis, May 20, 1720. Having heard, but not been officially notified, that they were summoned to meet to deal with 'things of an Extraordinary Nature', he hastened to town to offer them his assistance as commissary, though confident that they would do nothing inconsistent with their duty to him and the Bishop of London. He and Wilkinson have both received assurances from Lord Baltimore of his zeal for the Protestant establishment.
Clergy to Henderson, same date. Express respect and assure him that they were not summoned, but met voluntarily to bid farewell to Governor Hart. Offer to submit their letter to the bishop (3-4) to his inspection. Signed by all but two of the clergy who signed (3-4).
Henderson to clergy, same date. Thanks them for their reassurance. All the letters on this sheet appear to be copies.
7. Thomas Brook to Jacob Henderson, June 25, 1720. Informed of Henderson's intention to meet with the clergy on the 28th, he gives assurance of his and Lord Baltimore's zeal for the Protestant establishment. Endorsed, 'Veria copia, The Presidents Letter'. (The president of the council became acting chief executive in the governor's absence.)
8-9. Jacob Henderson to the clergy, June 28, 1720. Evidently the opening address at the meeting, though in letter form. This meeting was arranged at the time of the May 20 meeting (5-6). In addition to expressions of respect for the proprietor, he recommends the adoption of resolutions in favour of 'more than ordinary diligence' in catechizing, of more frequent communion, of a more strict observance of holy days (he is sure that services are always held regularly on Sundays), and of strict obedience to the canons.
10. Clergy of Western Shore to Lord Baltimore, June 29, 1720. Express satisfaction at being under the 'administration' of one who has expressed such zeal for the Protestant establishment.
11. Clergy of the Western Shore to the President (Thomas Brook, cf. 7). Acknowledge his letter and express satisfaction in happy relationship between the Church and the proprietor.
12-13. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Robinson, July 16, 1720. State of his affairs prevents his returning to England at present, as planned. Accuses Governor Hart of persecuting him to the extent of impairing his personal estate. Governor Hart invited the clergy to Annapolis prior to his departure without any notice to Henderson. It was rumoured that he would ask them to address the bishop and King in opposition to the proprietor. Henderson's success in countering this move is shown in the preceding documents, which are enclosed (5-11). Governor Hart's opposition prevented Henderson's holding any visitations after his first (ii. 235-8), but the clergy are now resolved to meet annually.
14-15. Thomas Brooke to Bishop Robinson, July 18, 1720. Being in charge of the government, pro tem., he takes occasion to pay his respects to the bishop and congratulate him on Henderson's success in aligning the clergy with the proprietor.
16-17. Charles Calvert to Bishop Robinson, Nov. 8, 1721. Acknowledges letter by Reverend Mr. Fletcher, whom he has inducted into 'one of our best benefices'.
18-19. Articles of inquiry addressed by Commissary Wilkinson to churchwardens at a visitation in St. Peter's Church, Talbot County, May 30, 1722. Formal inquiries concerning repair of churches, conduct of clergy, and behaviour of parishioners.
20-21. A list of Maryland clergy with comments on their politics and characters. Undated, but notation says 'abt ye year 1722', and names are correct for that date. Evidently Whig in origin, for it gives favourable characters to the Whigs and unfavourable ones to the Tories. Henderson is described as a Tory, Wilkinson as a Whig.
22-23. Governor Charles Calvert to Bishop Robinson, Annapolis, Apr. 19, 1723. Introduces Reverend Giles Rainsford who is visiting England for his health and whose character is praised. Asks bishop to send two or three more clergyman. Mr. Ramsey, lately sent, was inducted into best parish then available.
24-25. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Robinson, Chester River, Aug. 16, 1723. Reminds bishop of previous request for ruling on incestuous marriages, specifically whether to annul or merely require separation. Speaks of cordial relations with clergy and governor.
26-27. List of clergy and parishes on Western Shore in 1723.
28-29. Extract of letter of Giles Rainsford to unnamed correspondent, Apr. 10, 1724. Requests copies of Patrick's and Whitby's commentaries. Urged Commissary Henderson to convene the clergy on succession of present bishop (Gibson), but Henderson said he did not have the power. Recommends his reappointment both because of exemplary character and because he is the only clergyman with a sufficient estate to support the dignity of the office. Several of the clergy, of whom he names James Williamson and John Donaldson, are guilty of drunkenness and swearing. Mr. Barrett, sent by the bishop, got drunk and behaved so badly aboard ship that Captain Wilkinson put him off at Portsmouth. Mr. Cox is a man of good character, but his parishioners object to him because he is Irish. Irish Roman Catholic immigration increasing. Rainsford has had a recurrence of chronic headache since return to Maryland, and begs for a living in England.
30-31. Clergy of Western Shore to Bishop Gibson, Annapolis, May 29, 1724. Convened by the governor, they congratulate bishop on his succession and promise a faithful answer to his queries.
32-33. John Urmiston to Thomas Bray, Cecil County, June 30, 1724. After some unsuccessful efforts to obtain patronage in England, he came to New England, where he was crowded out by recent converts (probably Timothy Cutler and Samuel Johnson). In New York he just missed obtaining appointment as chaplain at the fort and assistant to William Vesey, rector of Trinity. Supplied Christ Church, Philadelphia, for a time and tried to succeed rector on hearing of his death, but was forced out by John Talbot of Burlington, whom he accuses of being a Jacobite and non-juring bishop. Not sorry to leave, as he was required to hold two services on Sundays, daily prayers, and sermons on festivals. Support, being voluntary, is precarious. Doctor Evans forced to leave for this reason. After a brief stay in North Carolina, Urmiston obtained his present parish in Maryland.
34-35. Clergy of Eastern Shore to Bishop Gibson, Oxford, Maryland, July 16, 1724. Grateful for the opportunity offered by his queries to give him a picture of the state of the Church. Great need is for regular ecclesiastical discipline. They urge 'the establishment of episcopal authority here if not to its just extent yet in some due measure'. Failing this, they recommend reappointment of Wilkinson as commissary. Proclaim zeal for Protestant succession. Ask bishop's backing for efforts to promote instruction of slaves. Few dissenters and churches well filled. Last twenty or thirty years have seen a great reformation in the lives of the people.
36. Henry Nicols to Bishop Gibson, St. Michael's Parish, Talbot County, Maryland, July 16, 1724. Supplementing his answers to queries 13 and 14, he says that parish has lately, after long litigation, come into possession of a plantation left to it for a glebe and rectory, but place is in bad shape and he asks a ruling from the bishop to determine who is responsible for its repair.
37-38. Charles Calvert to Bishop Gibson, July 26, 1724. He has presented the queries to the clergy, whose loyalty he commends.
39-40. Giles Rainsford to --- ('Reverend Sir'), Patuxen River, Aug. 10, 1724. Is returning some money lent him. Again accuses Williamson and Donaldson of drinking and swearing and adds Maconchie, who is also suspected of sexual licence and of trying to bring a 'rebel' (Jacobite?) in from Virginia. A Presbyterian minister is gathering a congregation among the discontented in Williamson's parish. Roman Catholics sought to make Negro women non-taxable, which would have reduced the salaries of the clergy (based on a poll tax). He hints that the Roman Catholics are encouraged by someone in authority.
41-42. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Aug. 16, 1724. He is forwarding the answers to the queries and copies of official documents relating to the Church. Reports rumour that Talbot and Welton are non-juring bishops.
43-44. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Aug. 19, 1724. Recommends for confirmation an unnamed youth who is going to school in England.
45. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, Chester River, Nov. 20, 1724. Assembly at last session attempted to set up a lay commission to supervise the clergy, but measure was rejected by the council. He only knows of two clergymen on his shore whose lives are really scandalous. Most of the rest are remarkably diligent in meeting the needs of extensive parishes. There is need for a strong ecclesiastical authority.
46-47. Wilkinson's answers to queries addressed to commissaries. Notes that Henderson is sending copies of public acts. Wilkinson visits all churches and schools once in three years. Clergy assemble yearly. Most have Bishop of London's licence for some province. All parishes have churches and only one lacks a minister. Revenue of vacant churches usually applied for repairs, but sometimes to buy glebe and rectory. Food inexpensive and mostly home-raised. Clothing dear. Recommendations: Glebes for all parishes and the Church given the right, which he says it once had, to claim all mulattoes as servants. Better control of tobacco weight and exemption from duty of a certain amount from each parish. A bishop for the colonies.
48-71. Answers of clergy to Bishop Gibson's queries. See Introduction (p. xxiii) for list of queries to which numbered answers refer:
48. Alexander Adams, Stepney Parish: 1. Twenty years. 2. Previously served Somerset Parish. 3. Yes. 4. Nineteen years. 5. Yes. 6. 50 x 16 miles, 400 families. 7. Some Negroes baptized. No effort to convert Indians. 8. Sundays and holy days. 'Some hundreds' attend in summer. Fewer in winter. 9. Three or four times a year. About fifty communicants in church and fifty more in chapels. 10. Sundays. 11. Lack furniture for Communion table and pulpit. 12. About £55. 13. Glebe land so poor that no one will live on it. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Some books in good order.
49. Jonathan Cay, Christ Church, Calvert Co.: 1. Twelve years. 2. Formerly William and Mary Parish. 3. Yes. 4. Nine years. 5. Yes. 6. 32 x 17 miles, 230 families. 7. No Indians. Several Negroes baptized and two communicants. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. Most parishioners attend. 9. Six times a year; forty communicants. 10. In Lent. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. House and glebe occupied by self. 14. Kept in repair by himself, though expense is greater than rent would be. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Small library.
50. James Cox, Westminster Parish: 1. One year. 2. None. 3. Yes. 4. Six months. 5. Yes. 6. Thirty miles long, 100 families. 7. No Indians. Preaches to and catechizes Negroes. 8. Every Sunday and holy day. About 160 attend. 9. Six times a year. Sixteen communicants. 10. Every Sunday in Lent. 11. No. 12. Uncertain. 13. Has a house and glebe 'but to noe benefit to me as yet'. 14. Vestry have promised to repair it. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes. Gift of Doctor Bray. An act of assembly requires vestries to visit libraries.
51-52. John Donaldson, King and Queen Parish. 1. Twelve years. 2. Previously served Somerset and Westminster parishes. 3. Yes. 4. Nine years. 5. Yes. 6. 25 x 7 miles, 200 families. 7. Some Negroes come to church. 8. Every Sunday and holy day. Most of parishioners attend. 9. Twelve times a year. 60-80 communicants. 10. All Sundays and holy days. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. Has a glebe which he rents. 14. House repaired at parish expense. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Small library.
53. J. Fraser, King George's Parish: 1. Twenty-three years. 2. Formerly served as curate in Northumberland and as locum tenens in Virginia. 3. Yes. 4. Fourteen years. 5. Yes. 6. A frontier parish, about 70 miles long, but sparsely inhabited, about 400 families. 7. Many Negroes baptized. Indians averse to Christianity. 8. Sundays and some holy days. Large attendance. 9. Eight times a year. 50-70 communicants. 10. Easter to Michaelmass. 11. Cost of building has prevented complete furnishing of church. 12. Uncertain. 13. Glebe let out. No house. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
54. Jacob Henderson, Queen Anne Parish: 1. Fourteen years. 2. Society for the Propagation of the Gospel missionary in Pennsylvania two years; St. Ann's, Annapolis, and St. Paul's, Prince George County, before present parish. 3. Yes. 4. Seven years. 5. Yes. 6.20 x 12 miles, 300 families. 7. No Indians. Often preaches on duty of instructing slaves and catechizes them himself. Has baptized a good many. 8. Every Sunday and most holy days. 300 on Sundays. Not over twenty on holy days. 9. Twice a month. Sixty communicants. 10. Every spring and fall. 11. Yes. 12. Varies from £200 to £260, depending on tobacco market. 13. No house or glebe, but intends to leave his own plantation to parish for his successors. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
55. Thomas Howell, Great Choptank Parish: 1. Native of Maryland, a missionary since 1697. 2. Has served this parish since then. Also served Dorchester until sixteen years ago. 3. Yes. 4. Answered by 2. 5. Yes. 6. Sixty miles long, varying in width from three to thirty miles, 1,000 families (est.). 7. Many Negroes baptized. Nothing done for Indians. 8. He officiates in his principal church twice a month and divides the other two or three Sundays among three chapels. When there is no fifth Sunday, he visits the third chapel on a week-day. 9. Four times a year. 10. During the summer. 11. No. 12. Would be £150 if he could make full advantage of it, but he cannot. 13. No. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. One. 17. Yes.
56. William Maconchie, Portobacco and Durham: 1. 13½ years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Thirteen years. 5. Yes. 6. 12 miles square, 300 families (both parishes). 7. Some Negroes baptized. 8. All Sundays and holy days, alternately in each parish. Most parishioners attend. 9. Six times a year at each church. 40-50 communicants. 10. Visits the schools in his parish to catechize. 11. Yes. 12. About £80 in average year. 13. Glebes in both parishes, but land worthless. No house. 14. Answered by 13. 15. He serves two parishes, as indicated. 16. No public but several private schools. 17. A small library in Durham Parish.
57. Lee Massey, William and Mary Parish: 1. One year. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. One year. 5. Yes. 6. 30 x 10 miles, number of families unknown, because there are so many Roman Catholics. 7. No. 8. He has two churches, which he serves on alternate Sundays. 200-300 attend. 9. Six times a year. 100 communicants. 10. Lent. 11. Vestry has ordered all necessary furnishings since his arrival. 12. Uncertain. 13. Large glebe but poor house. 14. House frequently repaired. He hopes vestry will build a new one. 15. He also serves St. George's and St. Mary's parishes. 16. No. 17. Yes.
58. Daniel Maynadier, St. Peter's Parish, Talbot County: 1. Twelve years. 2. Formerly in Westminster Parish. 3. Yes. 4.Ten years. 5. Yes. 6.29 x 14miles, 344 families. 7. Several Negroes in parish. 8. Sundays and holy days. Large attendance on Sundays, small on holy days. 9. Once a month besides three great festivals. Good attendance. 10. Sundays in summer; holy days in winter. 11. Need plate for communion, having only pewter. 12. About £100. 13. Glebe and house which he occupies. 14. House built and repaired at his own expense. 15. No. 16. Public school lately endowed, but no master appointed. 17. No.
59. Henry Nicols, St. Michael's Parish: 1. Twenty years. 2. He came to colonies to fulfil conditions of a fellowship in Jesus College, Oxford, founded by Sir Leslie Jenkins. Sent to Pennsylvania, he moved to Maryland with Bishop Compton's permission. 3. Yes. 4. Sixteen years. 5. Yes. 6. Thirty miles long, about 300 families. 7. Several Negroes baptized, 'and of Quaker families a great many'. 8. Every Sunday and holy day (alternately in church and chapel), and every Friday in Lent. 300-400 in church, 150-300 in chapel. 9. Every third Sunday in church or chapel besides the great festivals. 20-30 communicants. 10. Every holy day between Easter Tuesday and All Saints' Day. Children cannot be brought to church in winter. 11. Yes. 12. £100 in good years. 13 and 14. Cf. (36). 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
60. Thomas Phillips, Christ Church Parish, Kent Island: 1. Seventeen years since his first coming and nine since his most recent return. 2. Formerly at Basseterre in St. Christophers, and for a season in Newfoundland. 3. Licensed for the Leewards and for an adjoining province. 4. Three years. 5. Yes. 6. 16 x 3-7 miles, 100 families. 7. One family of free Negroes baptized. Not clear that any slaves are. 8. Every Sunday and holy day. Sometimes 200-300 attend, sometimes less. One family of Quakers and two or three families that are partly Roman Catholic. 9. Three times a year. 10-30 communicants. 10. On Sundays, but he complains that parents and masters neglect to send children. 11. Yes, for the most part. Some things lacking. 12. £20-30. 13. Has glebe and house which he occupies. 14. Yes. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes, but it has been scattered.
61. Giles Rainsford, St. Paul's Parish: 1. Twelve years. 2. Served two years in North Carolina and six years in Virginia. 3. Yes. 4. Three years. 5. Yes. 6. 30 x 10 miles, 120 families. 7. One Negro communicant and at least forty baptized. 8. Every Sunday. Most parishioners attend. 9. Once a month besides great festivals. Sixty communicants. 10. In summer. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. Glebe, no house. Untenanted. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
62. James Robertson, Coventry Parish: 1. Six years. 2. Formerly in Westover Parish, Virginia. 3. Licensed for Virginia. 4. Three years. 5. Yes. 6. 30 miles long, 300 families. 7. Some Indians whose language he does not understand. Some Negroes baptized. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. 200-300 attend in summer, fewer in winter. 9. Four or six times a year. 100 communicants. 10. Every Sunday in summer, after second lesson. 11. Yes. 12. About £46. 13. Poor glebe and house unfit for occupancy. 14. No one repairs it. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes, small.
63. Robert Scot, All Faith's Parish: 1. Sixteen years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Sixteen years. 5. Yes. 6. 50 x 3-5 miles. 154 Protestant and 52 Roman Catholic families. 7. Most slaves attend church with their masters. 8. Every Sunday, alternately in church and chapel. Well attended. 9. 3-5 times a year. 50-60 communicants. 10. As often as he can get parents or masters to send them. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. Glebe and house which he occupies. 14. Repaired by himself. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
64. Richard Sewall, Shrewsbury: 1. Twenty-seven years. 2. Removed from St. Stephen's, Cecil County, last December. 4. Ten months. 5. Yes. 6. 24 x 12 miles, but boundaries unsettled. 7. Some Negroes baptized. 8. 'Constantly.' 300-400 attend. 9. Four times a year. 100 communicants. 10. 'Continually' in private homes and schools. 11. 'Tolerably.' 12. £30-60. 13. No house, small glebe, still forested. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. Four or five private schools. No public school, though recent act of legislature calls for one in each county. 17. No.
65. Samuel Skippon, St. Ann's, Annapolis: 1. Nine years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Nine years. 5. Yes. 6.40 miles long, 130 families. 7. Many Negroes baptized. 8. Twice every Sunday, every Wednesday, Friday, and holy day. 9. Once a month besides great festivals. Thirty communicants. 10. Every Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday in Lent. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. No house or glebe. 14. Answered by 13. 15. No. 16. One. Master is named Michael Piper. 17. No parish library, but a fairly good provincial library.
66. Thomas Thomson, Dorchester: 1. Twelve years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Twelve years. 5. Yes. 6. 50 miles long, 100 families (est.). 7. Many Negroes baptized. A few Indians, for whom nothing is done. 8. Two or three Sundays a month in church and the other two in chapel. There are a number of islands in his parish where he officiates occasionally on week-days. 9. Three or four times a year. 10. Five or six times a summer. 11. No. 12. £35, approx. 13 and 14. No house or glebe. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
67. William Tibbs, St. Paul's, Baltimore County. 1. Twenty-four years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Fourteen years. 5. Yes. 6. 40 x 40 miles, 363 families. 7. Many Negroes baptized, but most refuse instruction. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. Good attendance. 9. Three times a year. Twenty-five communicants. 10. Every Sunday in Lent and other times when parents or masters will send them. 11. No. 12. About £60. 13. House and glebe which he occupies. 14. House repaired at expense of parish, but 'due care' not shown. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
68. Peter Tustian, St. James Parish: 1. 4½ years. 2. Two. Sent first to St. George's, South Carolina. 3. Licence for South Carolina. 4. Served Westminster Parish, Maryland, for a time. Inducted in present parish April, 1722. 5. Yes. 6. Eight or nine miles, 150 families. 7. Four Negroes baptized in his time. 8. Every Sunday and principal holy days. Attended by two-thirds of parishioners. Rest dissenters; forty families of Quakers, five Roman Catholic, one Presbyterian, one Baptist. 9. Monthly, 30-40 communicants. 10. In the spring. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13 and 14. Glebe but no house. Part of glebe used by himself, part let. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
69. Christopher Wilkinson, St. Paul's, Queen Ann's County: 1. Thirteen years eight months. 2. Served All Hallows, Somerset County, for two years. 3. Yes. 4. Ten years seven months. 5. Yes. 6. 40 x 20 miles, 552 families. 7. No instruction of slaves. 8. Every Sunday, alternately between chapel and church, by Wilkinson and a reader hired at his expense. About 300 attend in summer. 9. Once a month. 60-70 communicants in church, 30-40 in chapel. 10. In spring and autumn. Visits schools of children who live at a distance, and makes sure that the masters are diligent in catechizing. 11. Fairly well. 12. £60-150. 13. No house or glebe. 14. The house in which he lives is his own and repaired at his expense. 15. No, but parish contains three chapels of ease, served by him and a reader. 16. No. 17. Yes, small.
70. Alexander Williamson, St. Paul's, Kent County: 1. Thirteen years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Thirteen years. 5. Yes. 6. 24 x 10 miles. 7. No instruction of slaves. 8. Every Sunday and leading holy days. Large congregation on Sunday. 9. Four times a year. 100 communicants. 10. In the summer. 11. Yes. 12. Uncertain. 13. Glebe, no house. 14. Dwelling repaired at his own expense. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
71. James Williamson, All Saints, Calvert County: 1. Eleven years. 2. Formerly Shrewsbury Parish, Kent County. 3. Yes. 4. Two years. 5. Yes. 6. 16 x 12 miles, 208 families. 7. Some Negroes baptized. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. Most of parish attend. 9. Twelve times a year. Sixty communicants. 10. In Lent. 11. Surplice and font lacking. 12. Uncertain. 13 and 14. No glebe. 15. No. 16. No. 17. Yes.
72-73. Charles Calvert to Bishop Gibson, Annapolis, June 22, 1725. Sent by Henderson, whose affairs require a visit to England. Assembly attempted to set up a lay jurisdiction over the clergy, though it had not received any complaints from any parish. Calvert prevented the law from passing the council, because the clergy were under the bishop's jurisdiction and because it seemed unnecessary, as a majority of the clergy 'have behav'd themselves very well, as good clergymen & good subjects'.
74. George Murdoch to Bishop Gibson, June 28, 1725. Licensed to Virginia, he asks to be re-licensed to Maryland, as the salaries there are better.
75. Vestry of Somerset Parish to ---, June 31, 1725. Invite unnamed minister, recommended by William Gale, to become their rector and suggest that he might derive additional income from serving as master of public school lately established by act of legislature. (Cf. 86-87.)
76. Philip Lee to Giles Rainsford, July 22, 1725. Asks for the loan of a book and refers to a proposed disputation with representatives of an unnamed group.
77. Giles Rainsford to Bishop Gibson, July 22, 1725. Encloses (76) and indicates that the disputation is with the Jesuits. Complains that they are encouraged in the province.
78. John Urquhart to John Hay, Vicar of Coleman Church, Bell Alley, London, July 25, 1725. Under the agreement which brought him to the colony, he served for a time as curate to Henderson and McConchie, then supplied for Tustian, who had gone to London. Inducted into William and Mary Parish, he served there for a few months and was transferred to All Faiths Parish, the largest in the colony. It includes many Roman Catholics, whom he accuses of setting fire to his glebe.
79-80. T. Bordley [Boardley] to ---, Aug. 9, 1725. While admitting the need of some spiritual jurisdiction to deal with immoral clergy, he writes to oppose the rumoured intention of Henderson to obtain such a commission from Bishop Gibson as would enable him to exercise episcopal authority in the province. Says that Henderson is haughty and turbulent, opposed Governor Hart, showed reluctance to take the oaths, and is suspected of encouraging Roman Catholics and Jacobites. (Cf. 94-95.)
81-82. R. Gardner to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 8, 1725, introducing Nicklous Wale, whom he has known for twenty years, and who has been employed, without complaint, as a factor by gentlemen of Ireland. Notation, Colonel Gardiner--Maryland.
83-84. Lord Baltimore to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 30, 1725. Has received letter by Henderson and will issue instructions to governor in accordance with it. Precise nature not indicated, but they have to do with defending the rights of the Church.
85. Anonymous letter to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 26, 1725, against appointment of Henderson as commissary. Accuses him of promoting factionalism when he had that position under Bishop Robinson.
86-87. Testimonial of several persons in behalf of --- Kirby, who has been invited to become rector of Somerset Parish, Nov. 26, 1725. (Cf. 75.)
88-89. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, Chester River, June 15, 1726. Assembly is seeking to divide the parishes and reduce the revenue of the clergy in other ways, as well as to set up a lay jurisdiction. He thinks parishes too large, but if they are divided without increased stipends, the maintenance will be too small. Lack of inns imposes an expensive burden of hospitality on the clergy. He hears that Welton has left Philadelphia for Lisbon, after disagreeing with the local non-jurors. Talbot and Smith visited Maryland recently but behaved quietly and obeyed prohibition against their officiating sent from England. Henderson has offered to donate his plantation towards the support of a bishop.
90-91. Vestry of St. James Parish to Bishop Gibson, July 5, 1726. Their rector, Mr. Tustian, having been called home on private business, though reluctant to part with him, they certify their willingness to accept his arrangements to have the church supplied by neighbouring rectors.
92-93. Vestry of Kent Island to Bishop Gibson, July --, 1726. Complain that their rector, Thomas Phillips, will not see anyone until his business, however secret, has been stated to a servant, refuses to visit the sick, will not appear for a funeral unless there is prospect of a sermon and consequent fee, usually requires sponsors to be communicants, insists on beginning service on time, and keeps a transported convict women as his servant, by whom he is suspected of having a bastard.
94-95. Charles Calvert to Bishop Gibson, July --, 1726. Sent by Mr. Tustian. Warns bishop against Thomas Bordley [Boardley], leader of the opposition party in the assembly, who has sponsored various anti-clerical measures and has now gone to England, where Calvert suspects that he intends to cause trouble. (Cf. 79-80.)
96-97. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, St. Paul's, Chester River, Aug. 1, 1726. Assembly has begun division of parishes, declining to wait for bishop's consent or to pay any attention to English procedure. Passed a law to reduce clerical salaries, but it was lost in the council. Their leaders allege that Establishment Act never received royal assent.
98-99. William Tredwell Bull to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 29, 1726. A testimonial to Tustian, who is returning to England on business. He belonged to a Warwickshire family with which Bull is well acquainted and sailed with Bull for Carolina, where he served for a year, but, political complications preventing his induction, he received permission to move to Maryland.
100-9. Official copy, dated April 27, 1727, of documents in suit of John Caldwell against William Brewarton and Reverend Alexander Adams in which it is alleged that Brewarton evaded payment of a debt to Caldwell by deeding his property in trust to Adams. Court ruled that the deed was fraudulent in intent and set it aside, in part. Case presented in a petition to William Holland, Chancellor of colony. Richard Tilghman presided at the trial. Copy and service on Adams certified by Thomas Giley, attested before William Gale.
110-11. Alexander Campbell to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 22, 1727. Says Welton and Ross, whom he accuses of being a non-juror, concocted charges of sexual licence against him and held some sort of hearing on them when he was ill. Advocates supporting Baltimore's claim to lower counties as best means of combating Quakerism. Bears notation, 'Campbell, Maryland', but clearly refers to Delaware.
112-13. Thomas Bray to Bishop Gibson, St. Botolph's, Aldgate, Oct. 18, 1727. Introducing --- MacGill [Magill], who has come from Maryland for orders. Bray has examined him and is satisfied with his qualifications. Believes those seeking ordination for the colonies should serve some sort of probation in England, and offers to employ MacGill during such a probationary period.
114-15. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, Chester River, Dec. 4, 1727. Bill to divide his parish defeated in the council, but only because of inequality of division. Many leading men claim that legislature has the right to alter clerical revenues at will. Wilkinson again urges bishop to provide some sort of ecclesiastical authority for the colony.
116-17. John Eversfield to Bishop Gibson, July 4, 1728. As there was no vacancy on the Western Shore when he arrived, the governor would have sent him to the Eastern Shore, where he would have been devoured by mosquitoes and by 'chinches, like our buggs in England'. Rainsford, however, was called home and resigned his parish in his favour. Henderson has accused him of simony, alleging that he paid Rainsford an excessive price for his effects. He says that the price was fair and encloses an inventory (118-19) to prove it. Accuses Henderson of trying to bribe Mrs. Rainsford to persuade her husband to renounce the bargain in favour of a friend of Henderson's. Governor, convinced of his innocence, has inducted him.
118-19. Inventory enclosed in (116-17).
120. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 18, 1728. He has received and is circulating the bishop's printed circular on the instruction of slaves, but is afraid that masters will not allow slaves time for instruction in the week. Recommends sending a deacon to serve as catechist for the whole shore. Will allow a third of his revenue for the purpose and believes that other clergy will contribute as an alternative to dividing the parishes.
121-2. Petition of the clergy to the King, Nov. 24, 1728, against a law which they say will reduce their revenues by one-fourth.
123-4. Clergy to Bishop Gibson, Nov. 14, 1728. The law they are opposing allows payment of the poll tax in currency at the rate of 10 shillings per 40 lb. of tobacco, which they hold will reduce their actual incomes by one-fourth. Act also makes provisions for collection which will make time of payment uncertain.
125. Christopher Wilkinson to Bishop Gibson, Chester River, Dec. 10, 1728. Complains of above measure (121-4) and says his parish has been divided, cutting his revenue in half. Assembly was not able to put these measures through until Lord Baltimore's brother became governor. Refers to rumour that Mr Colebatch is to be appointed suffragan.
126-31. List of Negroes and mulattoes baptized, married, or buried by Joseph Colebatch in or near All Hallows Parish, 1722 through 1728.
132. Lord Baltimore to the clergy of Maryland, June 30, 1729/30 (copy). Acknowledges 'affectionate letter' complaining of grievances and assures them of his protection and his zeal for the Protestant religion, but makes no specific promises.
133. Copies of statements by Tho. Fletcher, Mar. 5, 1729, and James Robertson, May 22, 1730, accusing William Stoughton of abuse and assault. The accusers are both clergymen.
134-41. Records of commissarial visitations (by Henderson, cf. 145-6) on Eastern Shore, June 24, 1730, and Western Shore, July 15, 1730. Commissarial address, after an extended argument for revealed religion, stressed importance of instruction, with special reference to slaves, strict personal life in the clergy, and observance of the canons. Procedure concerned chiefly with presentation of credentials. John Urmston was admonished for being drunk at the visitation.
142. George Murdoch to Bishop Gibson, Prince George's Parish, June 17, 1730. Solicits some books to establish a parochial library. Applies to the bishop, as he understands that Doctor Bray is dead. This parish was created by the recent division. Though but part of the former St. John's, it is still too big for him to serve as well as he would.
143-4. The case of the clergy under an act of May 21, 1730. Undated, but probably drawn up to accompany (145-6). Objectionable act of 1728 (121-4) disallowed by Baltimore after the clergy's appeal to the King, and governor instructed not to assent to any law to their detriment, but new law allows them to be paid one-fourth part in grain, which they hold is over-rated, so that their recompense is in fact reduced. As the law does not specify any particular grain, they will probably be paid in the cheapest, oats, which are used only to feed horses.
145-6. Clergy of Maryland to Bishop Gibson, July 16, 1730. Acknowledge the appointment of Henderson as commissary, and complain of the above fact. (143-4.)
147. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Patuxent, Aug. 12, 1730. People threatened to mob him on his return. One ruffian struck him twice, 'after wch. I must confess I struck him'. A justice of the peace has assaulted two of the clergy, Robertson and Fletcher (cf. 133). The clergy as a body complained of this to the governor, but have received no redress. The governor, though polite to Henderson to his face, has threatened to kick him behind his back. He is a recent convert from Roman Catholicism, and appears to have an 'implacable aversion' to the Protestant clergy. Henderson urges prompt dispatch of his formal commission, and asks bishop to intercede with Lord Baltimore for redress of the clergy's complaints.
148-9. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Patuxent, Oct. 27, 1730. Encloses (134-41). Governor has inducted two clergymen, Edgar and Wye, expelled from Virginia for immorality. Vestry of St. Stephen's Parish are preparing a formal complaint against Urmston for drunkenness, and Henderson does not know whether or not he should proceed in the matter before the arrival of his formal commission.
150. Vestry of (King George's) Parish to Bishop Gibson, July 6, 1731. Their rector, Mr. Murdoch, having lost his books and letters of orders in a fire that destroyed his house, is applying to the bishop for a certificate of ordination. The vestry testify to his good conduct and diligence since he has been with them. They also ask the bishop to supply them with a parish library. Note presence of Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Quakers in the parish.
151-2. Record of visitations on Eastern Shore, June 16, 1731, and Western Shore, July 21, 1731. After giving an account of his own not very successful efforts to catechize the slaves in his parish, Commissary Henderson required all the clergy to give an account of their efforts. A few reported that the masters were co-operative and that they had considerable success in their instructions, but most declared that they could not persuade most of their parishioners to send their slaves for instruction.
153-4. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Patuxent, Aug. 7, 1731. He has deprived Urmston on complaint of his vestry that he was always drunk on weekdays and often on Sundays, but fears Urmston may sue him, as he has no formal commission. Urges the bishop to tell the merchant who delivers this letter where a copy of the royal commission may be obtained.
155-6. John Lang to Bishop Gibson, Aug. 14, 1731. Having served briefly in Virginia and now having a living in Maryland, he finds that his health cannot stand the climate and begs for a position in England.
157-8. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Patuxent, Oct. 11, 1731. Vestry of St. Paul's, Baltimore County, have complained of their rector, William Tibbs, who during forty years in the parish has neglected his duties and created a constant scandal by drunkenness, swearing, and quarrelling. Urmston has not sued yet and the governor has inducted a successor, Hugh Jones, into his living. Copy of vestry's complaint on same sheet.
159-60. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 29, 1731. He has refused recommendation for orders to one Allan, because he has only been in the colony for seven months and his education seems insufficient, though he claims to have passed his course at the College of Edinburgh.
161-2. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Mar. 13, 1731/2. He has received an attested copy of Bishop Gibson's commission, but it is the one issued by George I and no longer valid. He has been told that a copy of the bishop's present commission was sent to all provincial governments by the board of trade, but Maryland officials deny receiving it. Urmston has died as the result of falling into the fire, presumably in a drunken fit. He dare not proceed against Tibbs, who is wealthy and will put up a fight, until he has the royal commission. Mr. Wright, a clergyman who was sent to Virginia, ran away with a married woman. Since she was taken away from him, he has been wandering around Maryland, but Henderson hopes he has persuaded the governor not to induct him into the only vacant parish. Asks to be relieved of commissarial duties if a commission under the broad seal cannot be sent.
163-4. Alured Popple to Bishop Gibson, Whitehall, May 25, 1732. He finds that the bishop's commission was sent to Mr. Calvert to be recorded instead of being sent to Captain Ogle.
165. George Murdoch to Bishop Gibson, June 30, 1732. Encloses (150) which he was prevented from sending earlier, and repeats plea for a parish library.
166-7. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, June 5, 1733. Sent by Lord Baltimore, who is returning after a visit to the colony. He has proclaimed his determination to support the clergy in all their rights and they, in return, have resolved to support his claim to Delaware with a view to bringing it within the Maryland establishment. The Quakers, the largest element in the population of those counties are on the side of the Penns. Ross and Hackett serve a small parish in that corner of Maryland in conjunction with their missions in Delaware. Baltimore has inducted Hackett into this parish.
168-9. Arthur Holt to Bishop Gibson, Talbot County, Sept. 27, 1733. Concern for the health of his family has compelled him to leave Barbadoes and he is visiting Mr. Nicols, a relative of his wife's. He has placed a curate in his parish in Barbadoes, but is seeking a parish in Maryland. Governor Ogle would have appointed him to a vacant living, but Henderson said that Lord Baltimore had promised it to him for Urquhart. Lang has been promised a better living when one becomes vacant and in that case Ogle will give his living to Holt, unless a contrary appointment comes from England.
170-1. Lord Baltimore to Bishop Gibson, Grouvernor Square, Nov. 18, 1733. Recommending Mr. Chapp for ordination. He has been in Maryland and has a good legal training besides a liberal education. A living in Arrundell County is being held for him.
172-3. Arthur Holt to Bishop Gibson, All Faiths, St. Mary's County, May 20, 1734. He has accepted this parish and, though it is 60 × 14 miles, his restored health enables him to serve as well as he did his Barbadoes parish. Two churches unable to hold his congregations. People rejoice at restoration of regular services which lapsed during long illness of his predecessor. Roman Catholics numerous. Masters generally well disposed towards instruction of slaves, and he has baptized several.
174-5. Arthur Holt to Reverend Samuel Smith, All Faiths, May 21, 1734 (copy). Repeats some of the information in (168-9 and 172-3) and recommends contributions to strengthen the parish libraries.
176-7. Jacob Henderson to Bishop Gibson, Apr. 25, 1715. Mr. Chase, who has been the cause of coldness between Lord Baltimore and the bishop, was ordained by Benjamin Hoadly when Bishop of Salisbury. He is a person of great levity and a reputed freethinker, who spoke disrespectfully of Bishop Gibson until rebuked by Henderson. By Baltimore's order, he has been inducted into one of the best parishes. Two other clergymen, Morell, 'the most absolute sott in nature', and Vaughan, who seems to be a prudent good man, have been sent to colony by Baltimore without the bishop's licence.
178-9. Arthur Holt to Bishop Gibson, St. Luke's Parish, Chester River, May 23, 1735. Governor has transferred him to this parish, formerly held by Wilkinson, with which he is well pleased. It contains few dissenters, mostly Quakers. Governor has preferred Mr. Chase, Lord Baltimore's chaplain, to a good parish on the Western Shore. Holt has recently been visited by Johnson from Barbadoes, who is reported to have returned after travelling to New England. Urges appointment of a separate commissary for the Eastern Shore and recommends Nicolls or Williamson.
180-1. John Lang to Bishop Gibson, St. James, Ann Arundel County, May 29, 1735. As his health has failed in Maryland, he begs for some appointment in England.
182-3. John Lang to Bishop Gibson, St. James, Nov. 22, 1735. He has resolved to return to England if he lives until next summer and begs for some 'small easy cure in a healthy part of England'.
184-5. John Lang to Bishop Gibson, St. James Parish, Feb. 6, 1735/6. Another appeal for help.
186-7. John Lang to Bishop Gibson, St. James Parish, June 25, 1736. Another appeal for help.
188. Engagement of Thomas Fletcher to employ Nathaniel Whitaker as curate in All Hallows parish if he is ordained. Feb. 18, 1739.
189-90. Thomas Fletcher to Bishop Gibson, Somerset County, June 18, 1740. Says Whitaker came with excellent testimonials from New England.
191-2. Hugh Junes to Bishop Gibson, North Sassafras, Cecil County, Oct. 19, 1741. Urges restoration of some sort of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, as clerical immorality goes unrebuked since the termination of Henderson's authority. Jesuits are profiting from the ill reputation of the Anglican clergy.
193-4. A. Spencer to Bishop Sherlock, Annapolis, Sept. 25, 1750. He went first to Virginia but came to Maryland, where he has been promised a parish. Glad to inform bishop that Doctor Middleton's arguments on the miracles are repudiated by all men of sense in this part of the world, and that the bishop's letter on the earthquake is much admired.
195. Alexander Adams to Bishop Sherlock, Oct. 5, 1715. Asks bishop to persuade Mr. Onslow, Lord Baltimore's guardian, to disallow act deducting one-fourth of 40 lb. per poll tax and allowing balance to be paid in currency. Encloses some thoughts on bishops in America (196).
196. Thoughts on the American episcopate enclosed with (195). Recommends providing support by making bishop commissary for the probate of wills.
197-8. Hugh Jones and Henry Addison to Bishop Sherlock, Aug. 27, 1753. Urges him to take advantage of the present proprietor's expressed zeal for the Protestant establishment to restore some ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Maryland. Former commissary was prevented by government from exercising effective jurisdiction as result of dispute between former Lord Baltimore and Bishop Gibson over need for bishop's licence by Maryland clergy. This also led to the preferment of unqualified clergymen.
199-200. Alexander Adams to Bishop Sherlock, Sept. 29, 1752. Urges appointment of commissaries, one for Eastern and one for Western Shore. Recommends James Magill for Eastern and Thomas Airey for Western. Complains that some of the younger clergy omit reading of Athanasian Creed.
201-2. Alexander Adams to Bishop Sherlock, Stepney Parish, Oct. 18, 1752. Urges bishop to have Lord Baltimore's guardians instruct the governor not to permit any undermining of the establishment, for he understands that an attack is to be made on it at the next meeting of the legislature.
203-4. H. Addition to Bishop Terrick, Potowmack River, Oct. 29, 1776. Man known in Maryland as Congreve, but lately ordained by bishop as James Colgrave or Colgreve served for a time as schoolmaster in Addison's county. He was a notorious drunkard and ran away after running heavily in debt. After ordination, he officiated in parish where he had been schoolmaster and got drunk immediately after service. A large part of the congregation withdrew in disgust when he officiated in Annapolis. He has now gone to North Carolina, where he has a parish and a small stipend from Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
205-6. List of parishes in Maryland and their annual value, 1767. Gives last names only of clergy.
207-8. Hugh Neill to Bishop Terrick, Sept. 20, 1768. Assembly passed a bill to set up a commission of the governor, three clergy, and three laymen to regulate the clergy. It was approved by the council, but governor refused to sign it pending instructions. Need for regulation admitted, but pattern of government set up is so clearly Presbyterian that clergy are obliged to oppose it.
209-10. Thomas John Claggett to Bishop Terrick, Sept. 20, 1769. In opposition to the above measure (207-8). Governor identified as Sharpe.
211-12. Henry Addison to Daniel Burton, Sept. 29, 1769. Asks to be enrolled as member of Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Pledges contribution of £2 per annum.
213-14. Henry Addison to Bishop Terrick, Oct. 24, 1769. Recommending a young man named Hindman for orders. Does not know him personally, but he comes of a leading Maryland family, is recommended by mutual friends and has had the best education that can be obtained in America.
215. Hugh Neill to Daniel Burton, Queen Anns County, July 18, 1771. Having enrolled several of the Maryland clergy in the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, he now asks Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to intervene to secure disallowance of law making clerical stipend payable in currency. Enrolment of clergy was transmitted by Myles Cooper, president of King's College, New York, after a visit to Maryland.
216-17. Counties and Parishes of Maryland. Notation: List of clergy and livings in Maryland, 1775, given me by Mr. Boucher.
218. Conjectural estimate of value of Maryland livings before and after passage of late laws, 1775.
219. Undated note, headed 'The first act about ye protestant Religion'. Gives opening paragraph of an act guaranteeing Church of England all the rights guaranteed by Magna Carta.
220-1. Address of governor, council, and burgesses to the King. Undated, but bears signatures of Governor Nicholson, Thomas Laurence, and other leaders of late seventeenth century. Acknowledges gift of books and church furnishings and royal portrait.
222-4. Act for establishing free schools. Undated, but probably act referred to in (ii. 95). Governor Nicholson among trustees.
225. Undated fragment, probably copied from instructions to a governor, directing that, as Act of 1678 provides that half of 2d. per hogshead export tax on tobacco shall go to support of government, three-quarters of this half shall be used for civil government, and one-quarter for military defence.
226-30. An account of parishes and taxables in Maryland, prepared for the Archbishop of Canterbury by Hen. [Henry] Denton, clerk of the Council. Gives names of vestrymen. Undated, but names belong to late seventeenth century.
231. Undated petition from vestry of North Elk River to Bishop of London (Robinson?), asking his help in obtaining a rector. (Cf. ii. 227.)
232. Undated draft of letter from Bishop Robinson to Governor Hart, thanking him for support given to bishop's commissaries.
233. Undated protest (copy) by Christopher Wilkinson, Jacob Henderson, and other clergy against proposed act to set up lay jurisdiction over clergy. Addressed to governor and both houses of assembly. Answer of assembly says notorious immorality of some clergy calls for measure proposed.
234-5. Undated and unsigned extracts from letters apparently written by members of the Council to an associate of Lord Baltimore, expressing surprise at governor's disapproval of act to regulate the clergy. 'That the clergy of Maryland are better provided for than the clergy in any other colony, and that they are less respectable, is not to be controverted.'
236-7. Unsigned, undated note, identifying Arthur Holt as rector of St. Luke's, Chester River.
240-1. Undated queries concerning Thirty-nine Articles. Apparently representing the Roman Catholic position.
242. Undated catalogue of library of St. Paul's, Queen Anne's County.
243-4. Undated letter of John Dalton to Bishop Gibson, enclosing (75 and 86-87).
244. Undated fragment of draft of letter, probably from Bishop Robinson or Gibson, granting unnamed clergyman leave to return to England.
245-6. Undated address of clergy of Maryland to Bishop Sherlock asking him to urge Lord Baltimore's guardians to instruct governor not to allow any acts infringing rights of clergy. Refers to disallowance of act of 1728.
247-8. James Sterling to Bishop of London (Terrick?), April 20, ---. Asks financial aid on eve of returning to Maryland after extensive travels for his health which have exhausted his resources. Notation: 'The Rev'd Mr. James Sterling had my Lds. Lre. to the Treasury for £20.'
(For additional Maryland documents, cf. xxxvi. 259-71.)
CustodialHistoryAlso cited as FP 3
CopiesMicrofilm: Lambeth Palace Library MS Film 753

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