RepositoryLambeth Palace Library
LevelFile
Alt Ref NoFP XVII
TitleVOLUME XVII: General Correspondence
Date1661-1739
DescriptionBERMUDA
1-2. Proposals of the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations relating to Bermuda. Dated Oct. 1695 in notation. They recommend confirmation of acts of assembly setting the fees of public officials and providing for the support of the clergy. Most of the other proposals are concerned with the distribution of land. Members of the council and other public officials are named. An additional note, signed by B. Crooke, recommends adding Nicholas Trott, Junior, to the council. He is one of the largest landowners.
3-4. Ben. Bennett to Archbishop Tenison, Aug. 9, 1703. Thanks him for forgiving some unspecified offence and seeks support for his defence of his government before the King in Council. Refers to --- Larkin, who claimed to be familiar with the archbishop but with whom the archbishop says he is unacquainted.
5-6. Copy of (3-4).
7-8. Ben. Bennett to Archbishop Tenison, Oct. 19, 1703. A ship, recently arrived from St. Thomas, reports that a French fleet of twenty-nine vessels, including five men-of-war, has reached Martinique, and that many English and Dutch prisoners are held there. There is much trading with the enemy by the Dutch from Curaçao and by English and Dutch vessels which find St. Thomas more profitable than English ports. An English privateer recently took three Dutch vessels that had been trading with that port. Advices from Carolina say that Spaniards from Cuba raided New Providence, destroyed the fort and town, and captured the governor. --- Kendall, who was minister in Bermuda, went to Carolina, where he became insane. Partly recovered, he returned to Bermuda. Governor Bennett reinstated him in his parish, but after a few weeks he went mad again. He is now being sent home.
9-10. G. G. to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 23,1725. Commenting on Dean Berkeley's published proposals for a college in Bermuda as a centre for evangelism in the Americas, he paints a less favourable picture of Bermuda. He notes that the island is divided into parishes and 'tribes', that the inhabitants are mostly engaged in seafaring, and that many food supplies have to be imported. He thinks that Albany would be a better place for the college.
11. John Hope to Joseph Stowe, justice of the peace of Pembrooke tribe, Aug. 23,1726. On petition of Captain John Butterfield stating that Reverend William Nairn refused to surrender the keys of the church on an 'emergent occasion', Justice Stowe is directed to order the churchwarden to seize the keys or break into the church if Nairn continues his refusal.
12. Proclamation of Governor John Hope to all justices of the peace in the island, Sept. 26, 1726. As Nairn has refused to take the oaths, the justices are directed not to admit him or any other non-juring minister to any church, or to raise funds for his support.
13-14. William Nairn to Bishop Gibson, Virginia, Apr. 29,1727. Attributes his troubles to persecution by Governor Hope. He accuses one of the governor's supporters, an Irish tailor, of trying to murder him. He was sent to Bermuda by Bishop Robinson and served there five years. Dissent is strong in the island. He took the oaths (for the fifth time) before he left the island. He has been presented to the parish of Varina in Henrico County, Virginia.
15-16. Andrew Auchinleek to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 5, 1727. Letter carried by Governor Hope, whom he defends against charges made by Edward Jones and other London merchants in connexion with his signing of some unspecified acts of the assembly. Refers to Nairn's abrupt departure and to his marriage a few months earlier.
17-18. Governor John Hope to Bishop Gibson, Johns St., Nov. 17, 1727. Encloses (15-16) which he is prevented by illness from delivering in person.
19-20. George Berkeley to Bishop Gibson, Rhode Island, Mar. 15, 1730-1. Acknowledges a letter from the bishop containing an answer from Sir Robert Walpole which destroys all hope of his American project. Gives some information concerning Bermuda, though his advices from there are not as recent as he would like. The island has eight churches served by three clergymen. Each of the ministers has a small glebe. The rector of St. George's receives £50 stipend; the other two £40. One minister has recently left to accept a parish on the continent, but Dean Berkeley thinks that he has been replaced. There was formerly a dissenting conventicle led by --- Smith, who imported a minister from Carolina, but Berkeley believes that it has been disbanded.
21-22. John Pitt to Bishop Gibson, July 10, 1732. There are three clergymen, including --- Horton, whom Governor Pitt brought with him. One minister serves St. George's and the others divide the eight country parishes between them. As the town parish, St. George's, has fewer surplice fees than the others, the rector is allowed £25 extra. Each parish pays £10 salary and a share of glebe land, which rents for £8 a share. He estimates the total compensation, including fees, to be about £70. Provisions are plentiful and cheap.
23-24. John Pitt to Bishop Gibson, Mar. 29, 1733. As there are now only two clergymen in the island, he asks the bishop to send another.
25-26. John Pitt to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 18, 1733. --- Ormsby has arrived in poor health after a long voyage, but Pitt hopes that he will recover in the Bermuda climate and be able to serve as minister. James Blair has sent five of the bishop's pastorals, which the governor has distributed.
27-28. Alexander Richardson to Bishop Terrick, St. George's, June 23, 1766. He came out with Governor Popple in 1755, having been promised a prosperous living, but finds his support inadequate. One of the two clergymen serving the country parishes (both of North American origin) has left because of insufficient support. Richardson is a graduate of St. Peter's, Cambridge. Living in Bermuda is dear.
29-30. Governor George La Bruere to Bishop Terrick, Dec. 4,1766. --- Feveryear went to Georgia in hope of obtaining a better living, but died shortly after his arrival. Governor La Bruere recommends his widow to the bishop's charity, and asks that a clergyman be sent to replace him. He estimates the income of the country clergy at about £80.
31-32. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Terrick, Mar. 10, 1768. He has been disappointed in a chaplaincy which he sought from Lord Barrington, with the bishop's support. Governor Popple tried to get an allowance from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel for him, without success. He is sending the bishop a gift of a tortoise by the present governor's son, who is going home to seek the post of secretary, formerly held by George Browne, who died shortly after his arrival.
33. Thomas Lyttleton to Governor La Bruere, Oct. 8,1771. As Richardson persists in marrying his parishioners and as the governor refuses to charter a college that he projects, he plans to return home.(Copy.)
34. Governor George La Bruere to Thomas Lyttleton, St. George's, Oct. 9, 1771. He will seek to restrain Richardson from intrusion, but the question of a college charter must be maturely considered by the legislature. The islanders are so poor now that most debts, including the salaries of the clergy and public officials, are unpaid. (Copy.)
35. Alexander Richardson to Governor La Bruere, St. George's, Jan. 16, 1772. Complains because the governor now restricts marriage licences to the clergyman of the parish in which the couple live. (Copy.)
36. Governor La Bruere to Alexander Richardson, Jan. 16, 1772. He was just endeavouring to maintain harmony, and will call a court of ordinary if Richardson has any just reason to complain. (Copy.)
Richardson to La Bruere, St. George's, Jan. 16, 1772. Unwilling to submit to the governor as ordinary, he is appealing to the bishop. (Copy.)
37-38. Governor La Bruere to Bishop Terrick, Jan. 24, 1772. Encloses (33-36). Dispute began because Lyttleton insisted on performing marriages only in church and at the canonical hours. The governor's daughter, married about two years ago, walked to the church with him at the proper time, but, 'in these small Governments the Inhabitants do not choose to be under any good Regulations, or Restraint whatsover'.
39-40. Thomas Lyttleton to Bishop Terrick, June 27,1775. He is opposed to a law recently passed providing for the sale of pews in the churches, as the buildings are inadequate to seat all the people. He fears that the measure will drive some to the Presbyterian church, which has a large meeting house, but has lately been declining. He has received only one year's salary in eight years. The Associates of Doctor Bray maintain three schools for Negroes in the island under Lyttleton's supervision. As the island is dependent on North America for supplies, it will suffer if the ports there are closed.
41-42. Petition of Thomas Lyttleton to George III, June 1775, against the pew law (cf. 39-40).
43-44. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, July, 18, 1788. Congratulates him on his translation and gives an account of his own career. Having married a lady with an estate in Georgia, he was planning to move there when the American Revolution intervened. He served for five years as minister to English settlers on St. Eustachia [Eustatius], in the Dutch West Indies, because his Bermuda salary was in arrears as a result of a quarrel between Governor La Breure and the legislature. When he returned, his arrears were paid and he resumed his post as rector of St. George's. When the garrison was restored, he hoped for a chaplaincy, having been disappointed in a previous application (cf. 31-32), but (Charles) Inglis was appointed instead. When Inglis became Bishop of Nova Scotia, Governor Sir Henry Clinton secured the post for Richardson, but his successor, Sir Guy Carleton, now Lord Dorchester, has given it to --- Barrington. Richardson has buried a thousand soldiers and their wives and children. He will not undertake to say how many have been worked to death and how many whipped to death. He is alarmed by a proposal to move the capital of the island from St. George's.
45-46. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, May 13, 1789. Religion is on the decline in the West Indies. Bermuda still has three clergy for nine parishes. Besides Richardson, they are --- Moore, a New Yorker, about 80 years old, but still active, and Barker, a recent arrival. St. George's is the least populous and least prosperous parish, being dependent on the government and the garrison. The natives prefer to live near creeks, which are convenient for smuggling. There are about 6,000 Negroes, mostly native. The only cruelty is in denying them religious instruction and baptism. Richardson baptized about two thousand shortly after his arrival, but was forbidden from continuing his work by the chief justice, though he has baptized some privately. He has resumed public instruction since the receipt of the bishop's circular on the subject.
47-48. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, Aug. 14, 1789. If he can regain his chaplaincy, he will be content to remain in Bermuda, because of its healthy climate. Otherwise, he begs a curacy in England.
49-50. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, Apr. 20, 1790. Acknowledges the bishop's kindness to his son and asks his help in pressing a claim for damage to his glebe in the erection of a fort some years ago. He continues his efforts to instruct the Negroes, but receives no encouragement to open a Sunday school.
51-54. Governor Henry Hamilton to Bishop Porteus, St. George's, May 20, 1790. Many of the white inhabitants of the islands are illiterate and less intelligent than the Negroes, who are mostly employed as artisans, except some who till the soil, an occupation that is looked down upon by both whites and Negroes. --- Ewing, who was ordained by the Archbishop of Canterbury during the last illness of Bishop Lowth, is serving as schoolmaster and will be inducted into the first vacant parish.
55-56. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, Oct. 30, 1790. Concerned with his claim against the government (cf. 49-50). He has presented the bishop with a turtle.
57-58. Henry Hamilton to Bishop Porteus, St. George's, May 12, 1791. The bishop has suggested that the island needs more clergy, and the governor hopes that his influence may be sufficient to secure support for them from the home government, as he doubts that the colony will provide for them. The governor has proposed to Lord Grenville the appointment of a professorship to instruct older students in the colony.
59-60. Alexander Ewing to Bishop Porteus, June 14, 1791. Writes at the command of Governor Hamilton to give the bishop some information about the island. There are no public schools, for though land was set apart for the purpose, it is unimproved. Such teachers as there are would rather do something else and change occupations at the first opportunity. Though the island depends on navigation, the dead languages are commonly taught and mathematics neglected. Clerical salaries are only about £34 sterling, plus fees. Bermuda is noted for leniency towards slaves, but no effort is made for their instruction. Ewing was educated at the University of Edinburgh, where he studied languages, philosophy, and theology. He was designed for the ministry of the Church of Scotland, but united with the Church of England after coming to Bermuda.
61-62. Henry Hamilton to Bishop Porteus, St. George's, Sept. 24, 1791. Baker having died, the governor has inducted Ewing into his parishes. He suggests that the bishop send someone to investigate the ecclesiastical needs of the island.
63-64. Alex. Richardson to Bishop Porteus, July 4, 1792. He is seeking to increase the value of his rectory by selling the glebe land. Instruction of the Negroes has become dangerous, because of rumours of insurrection.
65-66. Henry Hamilton to Bishop Porteus, St. George's, July 10, 1792. Many wrecks result from the lack of lighthouses in the islands. --- Keith, who is going to England for orders, has a good character, but the governor is uncertain as to the sufficiency of his education.
67-68. Henry Hamilton to Bishop Porteus, St. George's, Aug. 24, 1792. Deplores the spiritual destitution of the island.
69-70. Marischal Keith to Bishop Porteus, Oct. 3, 1795. On returning, after ordination, he was inducted into two of the four parishes held by --- Moore, who retained the other two, though he has been incapacitated for 2½ years, so that Keith serves all four. He complains that Governor Crawford issues licences to --- Maidson the Presbyterian (formerly Methodist) minister, who came to the island from the U.S.
71. Bishop Porteus to the Duke of Portland, Fulham House, Nov. 21, 1795. Supports Keith's complaint as the issuing of licences to dissenting ministers is contrary to the standard usage in England. (draft)
72. Bishop Porteus to Governor Crawford, London, Dec. 21, 1795. Protests against the issuing of marriage licences to dissenting ministers. (draft.)
73-74. Daniel Leonard to Governor Crawford, St. George's, Apr. 12, 1796. The governor having shown him the bishop's protest against the granting of licences to the Presbyterian minister, he replies, that when first consulted by the governor, he expressed doubt of the propriety of doing so, but that --- Barscome presented the case for the Presbyterians to him, saying that they were of long standing in the colony, had included a number of officials, that their ministers had always performed marriages and that previous governors had sometimes granted licences, that their present minister was regularly ordained, and that the King was protector of the Church of Scotland as well as England. These arguments led Leonard to favour issuing the licences.
75-76. Ja. Crawford to Bishop Porteus, Govt. House, Apr. 14, 1796. He will discontinue issuing the licences, as he believes that he should be guided by the bishop in all ecclesiastical matters. He was told that there were precedents for the procedure. Presbyterians in Bermuda have always been married by their own clergy, but usually with the publication of banns. The colonists have a prejudice against publication, and prefer to be married by licence. Licences require that the couple be married according to the Book of Common Prayer and the Presbyterian clergy have always used this rite, when marrying on licence. He encloses (73-74). Leonard is chief justice.
77-82. Marischal Keith to Bishop Porteus, May 2, 1796. Though Governor Crawford has agreed not to issue licences to Presbyterian ministers without the bishop's approval, he seems to think that his and Judge Leonard's letters will lead the bishop to change his mind, Keith seeks to reinforce the argument against it. Governor Hamilton issued only one licence to a Presbyterian minister and that was under special circumstances, which do not make it a precedent. Governor Brown did issue such licences, but he, like Judge Leonard, was a native of Boston. Keith's references to himself indicate that he is a convert to the Church, but he does not say from what denomination.
83-84. Alexander Ewing to Bishop Porteus, Sept. 26, 1796. Reports sudden death of Keith, of malignant fever, shortly after his marriage into a leading local family. Ewing and Richardson are now the only active clergy in the colony. Moore, though alive, is incapacitated.
85-86. Duplicate of (83-84).
87-88. Representatives of the parishes of Warwick and Pagets to Bishop Porteus, Aug. 31, 1797. Ask him to send a successor to Keith. Present legal salary is 525 to 600 Spanish milled dollars and another 300 can be obtained by keeping a school.
89. Extract from instructions to Governor Johnson, May 3, 1806. Not to prefer any clergyman without a licence from the Bishop of London.
90-92. Undated considerations on the advantages of establishing an academy in Bermuda. Healthiness of the island and its poverty, preventing the existence of organized amusements, are both cited as advantages. Excellent opportunities for teaching navigation. Royal patronage and parliamentary aid to be sought. Some specific suggestions are made concerning the organization and government of the academy and a list of books is appended.
JAMAICA
1661-1739
93-94. Extract from instructions to Thomas Windsor, Lord Windsor, governor, Mar. 21, 1661/2. To punish drunkenness and debauchery and encourage 'conformable Orthodox ministers, ... That Christianity and the protestant Religion according to the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England' may be respected.
95-96. Extract from instructions to Governor Sir Thomas Lynch, 1681. Not to prefer any minister without a certificate of his conformity from the Bishop of London. To see that the minister is made a member of the vestry. To inquire if any minister is officiating without due orders and to notify the bishop. To attempt to obtain public provision for the support of the clergy.
97-98. Extract from instructions to Governor Sir Philip Howard, Nov. 25, 1685. In addition to the instruction in (95-96) it provides that the governor shall support the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, except with respect to collating to benefices, granting marriage licences and probate of wills. No schoolmaster permitted to come from England without the bishop's licence.
99-100. John Mitchell to Bishop Compton, St. Jago de la Vaga, June 11, 1709. A native of Ireland, graduate of Trinity, Dublin, and former chaplain to the Duke of Ormond, Lord-Lieutenant, he was induced to go to Virginia by Colonel Hunter, who, being appointed governor of that colony, agreed to pay Mitchell a debt owed to his father and give him ecclesiastical preferment. On the way he was taken by a French privateer, robbed of all his possessions, including his letters of orders, and finally set ashore on the James River, naked except for a sailor's coat. He then learned that Colonel Hunter had also been taken. He begged his way to Maryland where a friend paid his passage to Jamaica. Governor Handyside [Handasyd] has appointed him to St. David's parish, pending instructions from the bishop (cf. 103-4).
101-2. Governor Thomas Handasyd to Bishop Compton, Spanish Town, Mar. 20, 1710. The bishop having accused him of departing from his ecclesiastical instructions in some unspecified way, he defends his zeal for the Church by saying that he was the first governor to secure a proper maintenance for the clergy, and that, except to aid poor clergy who have been robbed of their orders by pirates (cf. 99-100) he has preferred no one without a licence, and has always had the licence recorded in the register's office. This is not required by his instructions, but he does it because he fears infiltration by Jesuits. One clergyman, --- Arbuthnett, though duly licensed, proclaimed himself a Roman Catholic on his death-bed. Another is suspect of being such because of things said when in his cups, as he frequently is.
103-4. John Mitchell to the Archbishop of Dublin, London, July 31, 1711. Begs forgiveness for having falsely pretended to be ordained by him. He went to Virginia with a friend, but the friend died and Mitchell was left in precarious circumstances. He went to Jamaica and declared himself a clergyman to enhance his prestige. The governor heard of it, and, having known his father, presented him to a parish. He married a daughter of Samuel Coleby, formerly a curate in Dublin and then missionary in Jamaica (now dead), and Coleby forged letters of orders for him.
105-6. An act for Regulating the Ministers of this Island. Passed assembly, Feb. 17, 1713. Certified by Pe. Beckford, Speaker. As the scandalous lives of some of the clergy have injured the cause of religion and as there have been doubts of the governor's power in such cases, this act gives him the power to deprive clergy guilty of serious moral offences.
107-10. Governor A. Hamilton to Bishop Robinson, Mar. 22, 1713/14. He has endeavoured to fill vacancies in the parishes in the island, but regrets that some of the clergy are unworthy. He names only one, --- Reinolds, rector of St. Thomas in the Vale, whom he charges with being a notorious profligate. He has prorogued the assembly which passed (105-6) for various intransigencies, of which that was one, in that it thrust a power on the governor not granted him by the Queen. A number of church buildings, including that in Spanish Town, were blown down by a recent hurricane. Refers to --- Collins as having been commissary under Bishop Compton.
111-12. Copy of (107-10).
113-14. Clergy of Jamaica to Bishop Robinson, Feb. 25, 1714. Recommend --- Tookerman for orders.
115-16. A list of parishes and ministers in Jamaica, Apr. 18, 1715.
117-18. William Johnstone to Bishop Robinson, St. Andrew's, Apr. 20, 1716. He is endeavouring to repossess the parish glebe, leased on what he considers unfavourable terms, but is meeting with opposition as the leasees are persons of influence. Former clergy were unable to improve the glebe, but Johnstone, who evidently has means of his own, plans to do so.
119-20. William Johnstone to John Chamberlain, St. Andrew's, Apr. 24, 1716. Relates the same circumstances as (117-18) with a view to their being reported to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
121-2. R. Tabor to William Johnstone, Spanish Town, Apr. 25, 1716. He has retained --- Melling at his request, but advises him to proceed with caution.
123-4. Francis Melling to William Johnstone, Spanish Town, Apr. 25, 1716. The issue depends on whether the lease was for a term of years or for life. Notation by Johnstone says it was for a term of years.
125-6. William Johnstone to John Chamberlain, St. Andrew's, Apr. 28, 1716. Says that both the King's Attorney, --- Broderick, and Tabor, 'our late Commissary', are opposing him. Encloses (121-4).
127-8. William Johnstone to Bishop Robinson, St. Andrew's, Apr. 28, 1716. Repeats the information given in (117-18). He is resolved to appeal if he loses in the island, as he thinks likely.
129-30. Clergy of Jamaica to Bishop Robinson, St. Jago de la Vega, July 24, 1717. Convened by Tabor as commissary, they assure the bishop of their harmony and of the political harmony prevailing under the present governor.
131-2. Governor Peter Heywood to Bishop Robinson, St. Jago de la Vega, July 30, 1717. Encloses (129-30). He has promoted Robert Barry to a parish worth £50 more than that to which Governor Lord Archibald Hamilton presented him. Most of the clergy are well behaved, but he has had unspecified complaints against --- White. Many of the clergy are Scotch.
133-4. Justices and vestrymen of Port Royal to the governor, Apr. 16, 1719. They did not reduce --- Dunn's salary by £50 because he planned to leave, but in the hope of inducing him to leave. At the governor's request, they have restored the cut, but they wish the governor would rebuke Dunn for unspecified offences. (Copy.)
135-6. R. Tabor to Bishop Robinson, Spanish Town, May 5, 1719. Encloses (133-4). Dunn's weakness is gaming. Tabor rebuked him for it, and he promised reform, but has lapsed. Lloyd, rector of Clarendon, next to St. Andrew's, the best parish in the island, died and --- Tresham, appointed to succeed him, died shortly after. Dunn sought it, but the governor refused. Scott was offered it, but preferred to stay in his present parish, so Clarendon and St. David's are both vacant. White has repelled most of his parishioners by his ill nature. Economic conditions in the island are bad. Tabor pleads that they be allowed some trade with the Spanish colonies when the war is over.
137-40. Votes of the assembly, Oct. 26-31, 1719. Printed by R. Baldwin, Kingston, 1719. They acted on various routine acts, adopted an address to Governor Nicholas Lawes and to the King, congratulating him on his success against the Scotch rebels and the Spaniards, and thanking him for sending some warships to guard the island. They received notice of the disallowance of acts for listing ports of entry and appointing inspectors, and for the discovery of disaffected persons.
141-2. William May to --- ('Reverend Sir'), Clarendon, Apr. 9, 1720. He arrived on January 21 and was presented to Clarendon Parish by the governor. --- Skip, the rector of Kingston, and Tabor have both died. Barry has succeeded Skip and May asks his correspondent to intercede with the bishop to recommend him to succeed Tabor in Spanish Town.
143-4. James White to Bishop Robinson, Port Royal, Aug. 30, 1720. He has sent the bishop a series of eleven numbered but unsigned papers exposing conditions in the island and the persecutions to which he is subject, even though he has been told that the bishops in England take no more notice of letters from the colonial clergy than a nobleman would of a porter.
145-6. Bishop Robinson to Governor Lawes, Nov. 11, 1720. (draft.) Thanks him for accepting his recommendation to appoint May to Spanish Town and says that he is naming May as commissary in succession to Tabor. This letter will be brought by --- Gunning, whom the bishop has licensed for Jamaica.
147-8. William May to Bishop Robinson, Kingston, Mar. 6, 1720(1). Acknowledges appointment as commissary. Is distressed to see immorality go unpunished, but colony has a law excluding any ecclesiastical penalties. There are five vacancies in the island.
149-56. Eulogy by W. Skelson, partly in prose and partly in verse, on William May, supposed to have perished in a hurricane, Aug. 28, 1722. Addressed to George Pennant. As can be seen from (161-2) and numerous later letters, the report of May's death was incorrect (cf. 207-8 and xviii. 234-5).
157-8. Order of Captain Burrows Harris, commanding the fleet sent to Jamaica, Sept. 13, 1722. Appointing Calvin Galpin chaplain of ship Falkland. (Copy.)
157a-8a. Calvin Galpine to [Bishop Gibson], Oct. 15, 1723. [Item additional to published Manross catalogue.]
159-60. Edward Reading to Henry Maule, Feb. 15, 1723. [Item additional to published Manross catalogue.]
159a-60a. [Cited in published Manross catalogue as 159-60.] Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, June 18, 1723. Skelson has behaved well enough since being on the island. He serves as domestic chaplain and tutor to a wealthy planter, but plans to return for priest's orders. The present governor, the Duke of Portland, is highly praised. Galpine encloses a printed sermon preached before the duke and refers to two others sent previously.
161-2. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, July 16, 1723. He served as commissary under Bishop Robinson and will be honoured to serve under Bishop Gibson, if desired. Refers to some imposition practised by Skelson on the bishop. Skelson and Johnstone are returning with this fleet.
163-4. Richard Marsden to Bishop Gibson, July 20, 1723. Having been domestic chaplain to the Duke of Portland, he followed him to Jamaica, but is unwilling to accept a presentation for fear of losing his living in England, but he is supplying for Doctor Lambe, who is supplying for Johnstone.
165-6. Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, July 23, 1723. Congratulates him on his translation and believes that his influence at court will be of benefit to the colonial church. Recommends continuance of May as commissary. Refers to return of Skelson and Johnstone.
167-8. Anonymous petition to Bishop Gibson, July 4, 1723. Begs him to do something to secure the release of mulattoes, who are often slaves to their brothers and sisters, as the writer asserts himself to be.
[This item is in fact mis-sorted and, although bound in the volume for Bermuda and Jamaica, is really an anonymous petition from a slave in Virginia. The letter is dated 4 Aug 1723 at the head, and may have been written over a period; the date 8 September 1723 occurs at the foot.]
169-70. Duke of Portland to Bishop Gibson, Mar. 2, 1723(4). In response to a letter from the bishop, he assures him of his zeal for the Church and his readiness to protect the clergy, though he proposes to remove any who are proved unworthy. There are three vacancies at present. Some parishes are without church buildings, as several, including that at Port Royal, were blown down in a recent hurricane.
171-2. Extract from a letter of the Duke of Portland to H. Newman, Mar. 4, 1723(4). Deplores low state of morals and religion on the island.
173-4. James White to Bishop Gibson, Kingstone, Mar. 5, 1723/4. As the clergy cannot assemble in less than two months, because of difficulties of travel, which he describes, and as a revision of the laws is about to be presented to the King, which he fears will not include needed ecclesiastical reforms, he undertakes to give an account of the needs to the bishop. There is widespread profaning of the sabbath. Sugar mills work late Saturday night, so that boiling and potting has to be done Sunday morning. Markets are held on Sunday in the three leading towns. There is no religious test for schoolmasters, and that for office-holders is not enforced. Most of the lawyers are Irish and many are sons of known Roman Catholics. Politics is divided between a court and a country party. The former governor encouraged clergymen to baptize persons in the parishes of other clergymen. The clergy are underpaid and constables and wardens tardy in collecting and paying what they do receive. They are unable to send their sons to the university or to dower their daughters adequately.
175-80. Catalogue of books brought to Jamaica by --- Barrett, Apr. 1, 1724, to form the basis of a parish library in any parish to which he might be appointed.
181-2. Clergy to Jamaica to Bishop Gibson (Apr. 22, 1724) (Dated in 195-6). Congratulate him on his translation, ask his protection, and defend themselves against charges of disaffection which they are told, by one lately arrived from England, have been brought against them.
183-4. Copy of (181-2).
185-8. James White to Bishop Gibson, Vere Parish, Apr. 23, 1724. Elaborates on the complaints in (173-4). Slaves are often required to clear land on Sundays. After they have cultivated this a year or two, to raise their own food, it becomes plantation land. The processing of indigo as well as sugar is often carried over to Sunday. Principal towns are named as Spanish Town, Kingstone, and Port Royal, the latter two being ports. The gentry treat Sunday as a day for social festivities. There are a number of Jews in the colony. He doubts the wisdom of baptizing the Negroes.
189-90. A copy of (169-70) dated May 5, 1724.
191-2. Nicholas McCalman to Bishop Gibson, St. Thomas's, May 5, 1724. Suggests a number of necessary improvements in the ecclesiastical situation: Convenient and properly furnished church buildings, rectories, and glebes, salaries of £200, not dependent on whim of vestries. Present salary is £100, supplemented by £50, if the vestry choose to vote it. McCalman, who is over 50 and has been on the island twelve years, would like to come home. Only one clergyman who was on the island when he arrived is still alive.
193-4. Edward Reading to Bishop Gibson, Sixteen Mile Walk, May 26, 1724. Low state of religion is attributed to subservience of the clergy who must cater to their vestries to receive the £50 supplement to their regular salaries. He has had some success in instructing the slaves on Doctor Stewart's plantation, where he lives, but most of the masters oppose such instruction.
195-6. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, May 30, 1724. The fact that there is no post on the island occasioned some delay in distributing the bishop's circular letter and queries. May summoned the clergy to meet on Apr. 22, but only seven attended, though he has since got the address signed by others (cf. 181-2). The clergyman 'lately arrived from England' is Johnstone.
197-8. Duplicate of (195-6).
199-202. John Scott to Bishop Gibson, Spanish Town, May 30, 1724. As two new parishes have been created, there are now three vacancies. Salaries of clergy provide at best a bare subsistence, and are not regularly paid. Jamaica money is now at 35 per cent, discount. He urges regular meetings of the clergy, building of churches, rectories, and glebes, salaries at least fixed at present maximum of £150, that clergy be allowed to instruct the slaves and that there should be a public school. Under the present law, the clergy are not allowed to collect fees. All of the clergy would instruct the slaves, if they could, except White, whose character he disparages.
203-4. Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, July 13, 1724. Gives some account of the meeting of the clergy (cf. 181-2). There was some debate about addressing the governor (the Duke of Portland), some holding that it would be irregular, as the convention had no official standing, but the argument prevailed that, as he had given May permission to convene the meeting, the omission of an address would be a slight. --- Glassbrook has lately arrived without any licence from the bishop. He is employed as private chaplain and tutor in the same family that employed Skelson.
205-6. Simon Peter Glassbrook to Bishop Gibson, Sept. 2, 1724. Begs forgiveness for some unspecified offence and asks for a licence. He is at present employed as domestic chaplain to Colonel Price.
207-8. Answers to queries addressed to commissaries, by William May. Establishment is based on two laws, one of which forbids the collection of fees, requires certificates of ordination, and forbids the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The other provides payment of basic salaries of £100 or £150, depending on the parish, to which the vestries may add £50 at discretion. In one parish, St. Katharine's, they may add £100 to the basic salary of £150. He has held no visitations because of the prohibition on ecclesiastical jurisdiction. He held one convention, to settle on a prayer for the fast day proclaimed following the hurricane. Only three or four attended and they gave him little help. He Catalogueded the prayer himself, though his own life was despaired of and he was in a distracted state of mind because of the loss of his wife, who died in his arms during the hurricane (cf. 149-56). He believes that there are several unlicensed clergy. The law does not require a licence from the bishop and the governors do not insist on it. Four churches, blown down in the hurricane, have not been rebuilt, and four parishes have never had church buildings. Four parishes are without ministers. There is no provision for parochial revenue during vacancies. He estimates cost of living as about three times that in England. All supplies are imported from England, New England, or Ireland. Madeira, the most common drink, sells from £18 to £30 a pipe. He recommends increasing clerical salaries. The clergy have asked him to say that they believe that the best way to encourage clergy to come to the plantations would be for the bishop to take them under his personal patronage, or to get the government to grant them pensions if they return home for retirement after faithful service.
209-10. Duplicate of (197-8).
211-35. Answers to queries to the clergy. See Introduction (p. xxiii) for numbered questions to which the answers are keyed. Most of the answers are in duplicate.
211-14. John Dickson, Westmorland: 1. Since 1715. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Nine years. 5. Yes. 6. 40 × 16 miles, about 124 families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Sundays and some holy days. Not well attended. 9. Rarely, as it is often impossible to assemble the canonical number of communicants. 10. No catechizing. 11. Church, destroyed by hurricane, is being rebuilt. 12. £112, including voluntary addition. 13. A small glebe. House blown down in hurricane. 14. He repaired it, when he had one. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
215-16. Calvin Galpine, Port Royal: 1. Since July 27, 1721. 2. He previously served (briefly), St. John's and St. Thomas in the Vale. 3. Yes. 4. Yes. 5. Yes. 6. An island of about 30 A., about 300 families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Sundays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. Sunday services fairly well attended. 9. Four times a year. 20-30 communicants. 10. Every Sunday. 11. Church destroyed in hurricane. 12. £110. He is evidently allowed to collect fees, for he says that they may amount to a third of his income. 13 and 14. No house or glebe, but £40 rent allowance. 15. No. 16. No. 17. There was a parish library, but books were mostly lost before he came. What were left were destroyed in the hurricane.
217-18. Thomas Fultun, St. Dorothy's: 1. 4¼ years. 2. Formerly at St. Thomas in the Vale. 3. Yes. 4. 2½ years. 5. Yes. 6. Eight miles, 30 families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Every Sunday. 30-40 attend. 9. At three great festivals. 10-12 communicants. 10. No catechizing. 11. Church destroyed by hurricane. 12. £130. 13 and 14. No house, barren glebe. 15.No. 16.No. 17.No.
219-20. John Kelly, St. Elizabeth's. 1. Since 1718. 2. None. 3. Yes. 4. Six years. 5. Yes. 6. 60-70 miles long, about that many families. 7. Nothing done for slaves, because of masters' opposition. 8. Every Sunday. About 50 attend. 9. Three times a year. 8-16 communicants. 10. No catechizing. 11. Two churches, both destroyed by hurricane. 12. £100. 13. House and glebe, latter partly rented. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
221. Nicholas McCalman, St Thomas's in the East: 1. Since 1712. 2. Previously in St. Elizabeth's and St. David's. 3. Yes. 4. Seven years. 5. Yes. 6. Three times the size of Barbados, sixty-two families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. Ten or twelve attend. 9. Christmas. Eight or nine communicants. 10. Catechizing irregular. 11. Church lacks pulpit cloth, cushion, and surplice. 12. No sterling estimate. 13. House and barren glebe. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
222-3. Richard Marsden, St. John's: 1. Went to Maryland in 1700. 2. After serving in Maryland and South Carolina, he returned to England and served some small livings there. 3. No. 4. Serving as locum tenens. 5. Being still chaplain to the Duke of Portland, he ordinarily resides in his house. 6. 20 × 13 miles, forty-eight families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Every Sunday. Ten or twelve attend. 9. Twice since he has been in the parish. 10. No catechizing. 11. Yes. 12. £111-15. 13. House and glebe. Latter partly rented. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
224-5. William May, Kingston: 1. Since 1719. 2. Formerly in Clarendon parish. 3. Yes. 4. Three years. 5. Yes. 6. 6 × 1 miles, 280 Christian and 50 Jewish families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Sundays, Wednesdays, Fridays, and holy days. Well attended on Sundays. 9. Seven times a year. 40-50 communicants. 10. Wednesdays and Fridays in Lent. 11. Yes. 12. His fixed salary is about £110 sterling. 13 and 14. No house, no glebe. £40 rental allowance. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
226-7. Roger Price, St. Ann's: 1. He served 18 months on the Guinea coast, as chaplain for the African Company. 2. He served as domestic chaplain to the Duke of Portland before being presented to St. Ann's. 3. No. 4. Fifteen months. 5. Yes. 6. Forty miles, 90 families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Weekly. 25-30 attend. 9. No regular time for communion. 10. No catechizing. 11. No. 12. Regular salary, £70; allowance, £35. 13. House and glebe. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. Money bequeathed for a free school has not been put to use, through neglect of trustees. 17. No.
228-9. Edward Reading, St. Thomas in the Vale: 1. Since 1722. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. One year, five months. 5. Yes. 6. 20 × 6 miles, 60 families. 7. Some success in converting slaves. 8. Every Sunday and some holy days. 10-30 attend. 9. Three times a year. 5 communicants. 10. No catechizing. Youths go to town for education. 11. No. 12. £110 fixed, £33 allowance and £16 extra for hire of Negroes. 13. House and glebe, though he lives at the plantation of a parishioner. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
230-1. John Scott, St. Catharine's, Spanish Town: 1. Since May 2, 1716. 2. Formerly served St. John's. 3. Yes. 4. Mar. 14, 1720. 5. Yes. 6. About 6 miles all around Spanish Town, 202 Christian and 38 Jewish families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Twice a Sunday and on holy days. Morning and Evening Prayer are read daily and there is a lecture every Thursday evening. 9. The first Sunday in every month and the major festivals. 10. Sunday and Thursday afternoons, when any attend, but he has difficulty in getting them to do so. 11. Yes. 12. Total compensation, including revenue from glebe and £50 as chaplain of assembly, is worth about £290 sterling. 13. House and glebe. 14. Repaired by parish. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
232-3. James Spenie, St. Mary's: 1. About 15 years. 2. Formerly served St. Ann's. 3. Yes. 4. Twelve years. 5. Yes. 6. 40 × 30 miles, 44 families. 7. He has baptized a 'great many' Negroes, both bond and free. 8. Having no church, he reads service and preaches in his own home every Sunday and some other days, but often his family are the only ones attending. 9. Communion administered only to the sick. 10. Twice a year. 11. No. 12. £70. 13 and 14. No house, worthless glebe. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
234-5. James White, Vere: 1. Nine years. 2. No. 3. Yes. 4. Nine years. 5. Yes. 6. 11 × 18 miles, 108 families. 7. Nothing done for slaves. 8. Every Sunday and some holidays. 10-14 ordinarily but sometimes 20-40 and 100-150 at Christmas and Easter. 9. On the great festivals. 8-10 communicants. 10. In Lent. 11. Church is being repaired after damage in hurricane. 12. £110 plus £30 allowance. 13 and 14. Small glebe. House not yet repaired from hurricane damage. 15. No. 16. No. 17. No.
236-7. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, Apr. 3, 1725. Asks ruling on a number of canonical questions. Can Roman Catholics and Quakers be received into the Church after a private recantation, or must it be public? May adults be baptized before they have learned the creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Commandments, if their masters undertake to instruct them? Can adults be baptized, though living in concubinage with their masters? May a Christian marry a heathen? Price has returned to England. Charles Porter, formerly of Barbados and Antego, has been presented to his parish.
238-41. Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, Sept. 29, 1725. Refers to some recommendation made by the bishop to the governor (Portland) for stabilizing ministers' salaries. Urges that houses be provided in parishes that do not have them. There are no places where a minister can board in country parishes. Without a house, he must depend on the hospitality of a parishioner or live out of his parish. He thinks this may be the reason why three parishes have never had a minister. There should also be some means, other than a suit at common law, to enforce prompt payment of the legal salary, which the wardens often withhold for a year or more.
242-3. Edward Reading to Bishop Gibson, Oct. 19, 1725. He continues to meet with great opposition in his efforts to convert the Negroes. He blames some of this on White, who sanctions the prejudices of the masters.
244-5. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, Nov. 19, 1725. Supports statements in (238-41). He sees no reason for baptizing adults who cannot answer for themselves, but is often asked to do so. Answers to other questions (cf. 236-7) not indicated. Sorry to hear of poor character of Porter. Is told that he has behaved well since here. Richard Park, chaplain to the Dragon man-of-war plans to apply for a living in Jamaica.
246-7. James White to Bishop Gibson, Kingstone, June 3, 1726. States his case against the baptism of Negroes. His argument rests chiefly on the inadequacy of the instruction that can be given them and the unfavourableness of their environment to Christian living.
248-57. G. (Marquis) Duquesne to (Henry) Newman, May 15, 1728. Commenting on Bishop Gibson's pastoral letter on the instruction of slaves, he states, on the basis of long residence in Jamaica, some difficulties not noted by the bishop. One of these is the general decline of morals which he says occurs in people who settle in the tropics. Cruelty to slaves is another obstacle. An unnamed minister in Jamaica was recently tried for torturing a slave to death. Outcome of trial not stated. The frequency of slave concubinage represents another difficulty. There is a well-established band of fugitive slaves living in the hill country of Jamaica to whom other fugitives can flee, so that slaves who attempt to run away are usually sold to the French or Spanish islands. He admits that the Roman Catholics are more zealous in the conversion of slaves, but maintains that their instruction is superficial. In spite of all difficulties, he offers his own plan for converting the Negroes. The clergy should be allowed to hold only baptized and instructed slaves and should be given a special allowance to secure such. A school for the instruction of Negroes should be set up in every town. When the means were once made available, the assembly should pass a law requiring all masters to have their slaves instructed.
258-9. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, Apr. 11, 1733. He doubts that there is much use in trying to get a law passed against slave concubinage. He mentions a number of clerical changes. He has held a visitation at which Johnstone preached, and the clergy decided to address the governor about their salaries. His wife is going to England for her health and he wants to do the same, but will wait for the bishop's permission, if his health holds out.
260-1. Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, June 19, 1734. Acknowledges appointment as commissary pro tem, during May's absence.
262-3. Duplicate of (260-1).
264-5. Calvin Galpine to Bishop Gibson, Port Royal, Sept. 14, 1734. Porter has been charged by a young woman in his parish with being the father of her bastard, having cohabited with her for five years, during most of which time his wife was living. He is alleged to have given her medicine designed to produce an abortion.
266-7. Joshua Peatt, to Bishop Gibson, Dec. 28, 1735. The vestry and justices of Spanish Town wanted him to succeed Scott, who has died, but the president named another. He is now supplying Kingston in addition to his own parish of St. Thomas in the Vale, because Kingston was left without a minister by the death of May's curate, --- Douglass. Governor Cunningham has recently arrived and prorogued the assembly, calling for a new election.
268-9. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, July 30, 1736. Refers to a previous letter describing his voyage back to Jamaica. --- Sanderson, rector of Vere has died, and --- Sterling has succeeded him.
270-1. Christopher Bridge to Bishop Gibson, Apr. 22, 1737. He has been presented to St. Dorothy's Parish by President Gregory.
272-3. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, May 30, 1737. Clergymen who have been admitted without the bishop's licence have generally misbehaved. May has been urged to proceed against --- Carey, already subjected to a civil penalty for performing a clandestine marriage, but has been advised that the law against ecclesiastical jurisdiction (cf. 207-8) deprives him of any power. He asks the bishop's judgement. Carey is rector of Port Royal.
274-5. James Knight, Henry Barham, and William Perrin to Bishop Gibson, London, Aug. 30, 1737. Certify that St. David's parish was vacant last June and they have not heard of its being supplied since.
276-7. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, Mar. 28, 1738. Mentions a number of clerical changes.
278. The Weekly Jamaica Courant, June 7, 1738. Describes a visit of Governor Edward Trelawny to Kingston and prints an address presented to him by the clergy on May 30.
279-80. William May to Bishop Gibson, Kingston, Jan. 31, 1739. Reports death of Johnstone and mentions some other clerical changes. Reports success of Admiral Vernon in a raid on Porto Bello.
281. Governor Edward Trelawney to Bishop Gibson, Dec. 7, 1738. He has appointed to three benefices since he took office and has named men who were chaplains in the fleet, as it is too far to write home and ask the bishop to send someone. Postscript, Mar, 10, 1739. He has appointed --- Bloomfield, an Irishman lately arrived from Virginia, to St. Mary's.
282-3. Lewis de Bomeval to Bishop Gibson, May 12, 1739. Mentions a number of clerical changes since his arrival. Governor Trelawney has made some sort of treaty with the 'wild Negroes' which may open an opportunity for their conversion (cf. 248-57). De Bomeval has had some success in converting other Negroes, though he meets with a good deal of opposition.
284. Fragment of letter from William May to Bishop Gibson, said in notation to have been received July 16, 1739. Speaks of some clerical changes and of some subject which the bishop had taken up with the governor. Says that Johnstone is visiting New England in an effort to escape from a 'melancholy madness' (cf. 279-80).
285-6. Joseph Blumfield to Bishop Gibson, undated, but received Oct. 28, 1739 (notation). He served St. George's in Nevis from Dec. 20, 1737, to Sept. 24, 1738, on appointment from Governor Mathew and has now been presented to St. Ann's, Jamaica. He found there a person named Cholmondly who claims to have been ordained by Bishop Hoadly, but can produce no letters of orders. His father is a stationer in the Strand. Blumfield would like a post in the East Indies. Since his father left his fortune to his brother, he has to look out for himself.
287-8. Lewis de Bomeval to Bishop Gibson, Nov. 24, 1739. He has been accused by Governor Trelawney of preaching sedition because he told his Negro converts to keep holy the Lord's day. The governor interpreted this as encouraging them to defy their masters.
289-90. Testimonial of justices and vestry of St. Thomas in the East, Nov. 28, 1739. They never heard de Bomeval deliver any seditious utterances.
291-2. Similar testimonial from justices and vestry of St. David's, Nov. 28, 1739.
CustodialHistoryAlso cited as FP 17
CopiesMicrofilm: Lambeth Palace Library MS Film 760
RelatedMaterialWith reference to FP XVII. 19-20, a further letter from Berkeley to Gibson, 5 September 1728, is held at the Morgan Library and Museum: MA 3258.
PublnNoteFulham Papers 17, f. 77:
Hugh Norwood, "Founding Colleges in the 1830s - at Durham and in Piedmont", 'Durham County Local History Society Bulletin', No. 66, 2003 [Z664.L2 7.40]

Fulham Papers 17, ff. 167-168:
Paul Harvey, 'A History of African American Religion', Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2011
Thomas N. Ingersoll, " 'Releese us out of this Cruell Bondegg': An Appeal from Virginia in 1723", 'The William and Mary Quarterly', Vol. 51, No. 4, Oct., 1994, pp. 777-782. Available online at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946943

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